Offline Updates

This section guides you through the steps of updating a device offline.


Make sure to check the Offline Update Considerations.


  1. Enable Offline Update support, i.e. add aklite-offline to PACKAGECONFIG of aktualizr. For example:

    cat meta-subscriber-overrides.git/recipes-sota/aktualizr/aktualizr_%.bbappend
    PACKAGECONFIG:append = " aklite-offline"
  2. Enable Container Preloading if you would like to update Compose Apps along with rootfs (aka ostree).

  3. Ensure that TUF keys are taken offline.

  4. Build an LmP image and flash it onto a target device or update the device with the image via OTA.

Obtaining Offline Update Content

First download the offline update content from your Factory to an install medium which can be attached to the target device. The offline update content consists of:

  1. TUF metadata;
  2. OSTree repo containing a device’s rootfs;
  3. Compose Apps.

Use the command fioctl targets offline-update <target-name> <dst> --tag <tag> [--prod] [--expires-in-days <days>] to download the update content.

  • <target-name> - denotes the Target to update a device to
  • <dst> - defines a path to download the update content to
  • <tag> - specifies the Target tag and the tag that the device is on
  • --prod - indicates that this is an update for a production device and <target-name> refers to Production Target (see the note below)
  • <days> - Offline artifact validity period in days


Use fioctl waves init/complete commands to generate Production Targets.

Ensure that the target device is a Production device, see Manufacturing Process for Device Registration for more details.


In order to download all artifacts, fioctl requires token with scopes: targets:read, ci:read.

Performing the Offline Update

Before doing the offline update, make the offline update content accessible on a device, e.g., attach and mount the USB drive.

Use the aklite-offline CLI utility to perform an offline update.

  1. Run aklite-offline install [--config <config dir or file>] --src-dir <path to offline update content>.

  2. Run one of the post installation actions depending on the aklite-offline install result:

    1. code 100: reboot device and invoke aklite-offline run [--config <config dir or file>] to finalize an ostree installation and start Apps if both ostree/rootfs and Apps are updated;
    2. code 101: restart the Docker Engine (e.g. systemctl restart docker) and invoke aklite-offline run [--config <config dir or file>] if just Apps are updated.
    3. code 90: reboot device to finalize the previous boot firmware update and go to the step #1 to start the update.
  3. Reboot a device after running aklite-offline run [--config <config dir or file>] command if:

    1. code 100: Apps failed to start after update, you must reboot a device to complete the rollback;
    2. code 90: the update includes a boot firmware, you can optionally reboot a device to finalize the boot firmware upgrade.

Usage Details

The CLI utility supports two commands:

  1. aklite-offline install [--config <config file/dir>] --src-dir <update-content-dir>
  2. aklite-offline run [--config <config file/dir>]
``--config`` -  Path to a directory that contains one of more ``*.toml`` configuration snippets or a path to a ``*.toml`` file. It may be omitted at all so the command collects config from the snippets found in the default directories/files, as ``aktualizr-lite`` does:


``--src-dir`` - Path to a directory that contains update content downloaded by ``fioctl targets offline-update`` command.

Post Install and Run Actions

The install and run commands sets exit codes (echo $?) to instruct which of the post install actions you should perform.

The install command sets the following exit codes:

  • 0: Installation was not performed.
    • Device already runs the specified target, no update is needed.
  • 90: Installation was not performed.
    • Reboot is required to complete the previous boot firmware update. After reboot a client should repeat the update attempt from the beginning.
  • 100: Installation succeeded.
    • Reboot is required to complete installation. After reboot aklite-offline run must be invoked.
  • 101: Installation succeeded.
    • Restart of dockerd service is required to complete installation, e.g. systemctl restart docker. After the restart aklite-offline run must be invoked.

The run command sets the following exit codes:

  • 0: Update succeeded.
    • Device is booted on the updated rootfs and running the updated Apps.
  • 90: Update succeeded.
    • Device is booted on the updated rootfs and running the updated Apps.
    • Bootloader is updated too, optionally, a reboot to confirm its update can be performed.
  • 99: Update failed.
    • Device failed to boot on the updated rootfs and rollbacked to the previous version.
  • 100: Update failed.
    • Device successfully booted on the updated rootfs but failed to start the updated Apps after the reboot.
    • Device is rollbacking to the previous version, reboot followed by aklite-offline run is required to complete the rollback.
  • 110: Update failed.
    • Device failed to boot on the updated rootfs and rollbacked to the previous version.
    • Device failed to start the previous version’s Apps since they are unknown.
  • 120: Update failed.
    • Device successfully booted on the updated rootfs but failed to start the updated Apps after the reboot.
    • Device cannot perform rollback because the Target/version to rollback to is unknown.

Configuration Details

The minimum required configuration is:

primary_ecu_hardware_id = <>

The command can digest the default device config consisting of:

  1. *toml files added into LmP during bitbaking (usually just /usr/lib/sota/conf.d/40-hardware-id.toml);
  2. sota.toml generated by lmp-device-register.

If a device needs to support offline and online updating, then the configuration needs to be shared with aktualizr-lite.

Normally, each LmP image includes a configuration file /usr/lib/sota/conf.d/40-hardware-id.toml which defines a hardware ID. Therefore, by default, an LmP image includes the minimum required configuration, hence NO device registration is required for aklite-offline to work.

If you register a device and sota.toml is generated, then the offline update command can either work alone or alone with aktualizr-lite. In the later case, you must stop the aktualizr-lite systemd service before running the offline update command.

Offline Update Considerations

  • Offline Update is not a packaged delivery

    The content provided by fioctl targets offline-update command should be packaged by you, and verified by the client service.

  • Offline Update does not provide a secure delivery

    Related to the bullet above,™ cannot provide secure delivery of offline update content since you should do the packaging and delivery.

  • Offline Update allows installing Targets from different Tags

    A custom client application should handle this case if it is not the intended behavior.

  • Online/Offline Mixed Updates

    Toggling between online and offline modes is not tested or validated by It should be handled by a custom client application. Both cases can work together, but the offline update feature is designed to be offline only, until the device is registered.

There are a few points to take into account by the custom client application:

  • The critical rule is not to run two types of updates/clients simultaneously: aktualizr-lite should be stopped before aklite-offline runs and vice-versa.
  • Offline Update can downgrade version: A client around the offline updater should check it out and decide whether to allow a downgrade or not.
  • Offline Update does content-based shortlisting: Only the Apps included in a source directory are installed.
  • Offline Update fails if its input TUF metadata are outdated, e.g. an online update updated TUF root meta to version N while an offline content has version N-1 of root meta.